Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) shows a worldwide public health problem. There are over 30 different bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are transmitted between humans through sexual contact. The most common bacterial conditions include chlamydial infections, gonorrhea, and syphilis.
Sexually transmitted disease
The spread of most STDs is currently out of control. The WHO estimates that the annual global number of new STD cases is 448 million, with most infections occurring in fifteen- to thirty-year-old individuals. Importantly, STDs represent the single most frequent case of preventable infertility, especially among women. In the United States, STDs remain a major public health challenge. The 2010 STD Surveillance Report published by the CDC indicated that while substantial progress has been made in preventing, diagnosing, and treating certain STDs, 19 million new infections occur each year, nearly half of them among people aged fifteen to twenty-four. STDs also exact a tremendous economic toll, with direct medical costs estimated at $17 billion annually in the United States alone. Many cases of STDs go undiagnosed; others are not reported at all. This is particularly problematic as women with untreated chlamydia or gonorrhea infections risk infertility, and both men and women with papillomavirus infection have a greater than normal risk of cancer.
Sexually transmitted disease
STDs were called as venereal diseases (from Venus, the Roman goddess of love) and may sometimes be referred to as sexually transmitted infections (STis). Although they occur most frequently in the most sexually active age group-IS to 30 years of age-anyone who has sexual contact with an infected individual is at increased risk. In general, the more sexual partners a person has, the more likely the person will acquire an STD.

Some of the microorganisms that cause STDs can also be transmitted by nonsexual means. Examples include transmission by contaminated hypodermic needles and syringes shared among intravenous drug users and transmission from infected mothers to their infants. Some STDs can be cured quite easily, but others are presently difficult or impossible to cure. Because treatments are often inadequate, prevention is essential. Preventive measures are based mainly on better education of the total population and, when possible, control of the sources of infection and treatment of infected individuals with chemotherapeutic agents.


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