HUMAN GENOME PROJECT (HGP)

HUMAN GENOME PROJECT (HGP)

INTRODUCTION

  1. The human genome project (HGP) was an international scientific research project that aimed to determined the complete sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA and all the genes it contains.
  2. It remains the world's largest collaborative biological project.
  3. The idea was picked up in 1984 by the US government when the planning started, the project was formally launched in 1990 and was declared complete in 2003. (It takes more 3 years to complete).
  4. The human genome project originally aimed to map the nucleotides contained in a human genome.

Goals of Human genome project

  1. To determine the sequence of the 3 billions base pairs that makes up the human DNA.
  2. To store these informations in databases.
  3. To address Ethical, Legal, and Social issues.
  4. Sequence the genome of other organisms that are important in medical research such as Mouse, Drosophila etc. 

  1. Human Genome Project Logo

Countries participating and Human Genome Project funding agencies

  1. In 1990, the 2 major funding agencies, the US department of energy (DOE) and National Institute of Health (NIH) developed an MOU in order to coordinate plans and set the clock for the initiation of the project.
  2. Most of the government sponsored sequencing was performed in 20 universities and research centers in the United States, The United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, Canada and China.
  3. A parallel project was conducted outside the government sponsorship by the Celera corporation or the Celera Genomics which was formally launched in 1998.
  4. The $3 billions project was formally launched in 1990 by the US department of energy and the National Institute of Health (NIH).
  5. The Human Genome Project was a 13 year long, publicly funded project initiated in 1990 with the objective of determining the DNA sequence of the entire euchromatic human genome within 15 years.

Pioneers of Human Genome Project

  1. Robert Sinsheimer proposed the idea of sequencing the HGP in the year 1985.
  2. Charles Delisi and David Smith proposed the budget for HGP.
  3. Human Genome Project act was passed in the US congress under president Regan in 1988.
  4. James Watson headed the NIH genome Program.

Sequencing Strategies

  1. To sequence DNA, it must be first amplified, or increased in quantity.
  2. Two types of DNA amplifications are cloning and polymerase chain reactions (PCR).
  3. Now, the DNA has been amplified, Sequencing can begin, Sequencing techniques used in HGP are:-  Shortgun Sequencing method, Sanger Sequencing method
Human Genome Project Timeline

Outcomes of Human Genome Project

  1. There are approximately 22,300 protein coding genes in human beings, the same range as in other mammals. Mouse-2300 genes, Drosophila-17000 genes, C.elegans-22000 genes.
  2. Human genome project comprises of 2% of exons (coding regin) and 98% of intros (non-coding regions).

Application of Human Genome Project

  1. The sequencing of the human genome holds benefits for many field, from molecular medicine to human evolution.
  2. Helps in identifying disease causing gene.
  3. Identification of mutation linked to different forms of cancer.
  4. The sequence of DNA is stored  in databases available to the Internet.
  5. The US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and sister organization in Europe and Japan has the gene sequence in a database known as GeneBank.
  6. Benefited in the advancement of Forensic Science

HUMAN GENOME PROJECT (HGP)


If you like this post please share with others subscribe and follow my website

THANKS




No comments